Have you ever read the JavaBean (TM) specification? It really is from another era!
The JavaBean specification
The JavaBean specification, version 1.01, was the last specification that defined the approach to the common bean pattern used in many Java applications. Most developers have never read it, but if you want a history lesson, its a good read.
The spec dates from 1997, JDK 1.1 and Sun Microsystems, a scary 17 years ago. Serialization and Reflection are new technologies, and CORBA is a big deal.
The introduction starts with:
The goal of the JavaBeans APIs is to define a software component model for Java, so that third party ISVs can create and ship Java components that can be composed together into applications by end users.
It goes on to describe the key goal of being able to interact with the OpenDoc, COM/DCOM/ActiveX and LiveConnect object models, so JavaBeans can be embedded inside Word documents and Excel spreadsheets (via a "transparant bridge"). An early example is the desire to support "menubar merging", combining the menu from a JavaBean with that of the host application.
So, what is a JavaBean?:
A Java Bean is a reusable software component that can be manipulated visually in a builder tool.
The explanation goes on to consider builder tools as web page builders, visual application builders,
GUI layout builders, or document editors (like a Word document).
Beans may have a GUI, or be invisible, however GUI is clearly the main focus.
Note that GUI beans are required to subclass
The unifying features of a bean are:
- Introspection - so tools can analyse a bean
- Customization - so tools can alter a bean
- Events - AWT style event handing
- Methods - the set of methods the bean declares as being callable
- Properties - the set of get/set properties
- Persistence - long term storage, primarily by serialization
Beans are expected to run in a container, and that container is expected to provide certain behaviour around persistence and gluing beans together. Notably, a connection from one bean to another can either be composition (where the bean is expected to serialize the composed bean) or a "pointer to an external bean", where it is expected that the container will recreate it.
The multi-threading section is very simplistic:
It is the responsibility of each java bean developer to make sure that their bean behaves properly under multi-threaded access. For simple beans this can generally be handled by simply making all the methods “synchronized”.
Another interesting section indicates a future plan to add a "view" layer, where multiple beans can be composed
together into a view. To enable this, two methods
Beans.getInstanceOf() are supposed to be used. Casts and
The most classic part of the spec is the scenarios section:
Buying the tools.
1.a) The user buys and installs the WombatBuilder Java application builder.
1.b) The user buys some JavaBeans components from Al’s Discount Component Store. They get a win32 floppy containing the beans in a JAR file. This includes a “Button” component and a “DatabaseViewer” component.
1.c) The user inserts the floppy into the machine and uses the WombatBuilder...
Floppy disks! Well this is 1997...
The section does highlight that bean customization is expected to make available a mechanism of serializing
beans as source code, via the
Standard Java object serialization is a mandatory technique, while the source code route is optional.
Event handling is familiar enough, using
java.util.EventObject (think mouse listeners for example).
Beans can define their own event hierarchies and publish the events that the bean defines.
The listeners are based on a naming convention:
The standard design pattern for EventListener registration is:
public void add<ListenerType>(<ListenerType> listener);
public void remove<ListenerType>(<ListenerType> listener);
And of course these methods are expected to access a
Vector to store the listeners.
A special case is that of limiting the number of listeners using
not something I've ever seen.
Oh, and you are supposed to declare and throw checked exceptions in listeners, not unchecked.
Section 7 covers properties, described as "discrete, named attributes of a JavaBean". They are defined by a naming convention we all know well:
void setFoo(PropertyType value); // simple setter
PropertyType getFoo(); // simple getter
There is also direct support for indexed properties, but only on arrays:
void setter(int index, PropertyType value); // indexed setter
PropertyType getter(int index); // indexed getter
void setter(PropertyType values); // array setter
PropertyType getter(); // array getter
Note that the spec is slightly unclear here, using "setter" and "getter" as a placeholder for a "setFoo" type name. All getters and setters are allowed to throw checked exceptions.
Bound and constrained properties get a mention, along with
Vetoing gets complicated when there are multiple event listeners and some may have been notified
of a success before the veto occurs.
The spec has a suprising amount of detail on these two concepts, including a variety of ways of registering
The introspection section finally talks in detail about using reflection ad design patterns to find
getters and setters, plus the ability to use a more specific
By default we will use a low level reflection mechanism to study the methods supported by a target bean and then apply simple design patterns to deduce from those methods what properties, events, and public methods are supported. However, if a bean implementor chooses to provide a BeanInfo class describing their bean then this BeanInfo class will be used to programmatically discover the beans behaviour.
...within Java Beans the use of method and type names that match design patterns is entirely optional. If a programmer is prepared to explicitly specify their properties, methods, and events using the BeanInfo interface then they can call their methods and types whatever they like. ... Although use of the standard naming patterns is optional, we strongly recommend their use as standard naming conventions are an extremely valuable documentation technique
Bean properties, getters and setters, are matched based on the "get" and "set" prefix, and they may be defined in a superclass. Read-only and write-only properties are permitted. Boolean properties may use the "is" prefix, which may be used instead of, or in addition to, the normal "get" prefixed method.
Bean events are similarly matched by "addFooListener" and "removeFooListener" pattern matching. Both must be present for an event to be recognised.
Bean methods are simply defined as all public methods of the class. The list of methods includes getters, setters and event methods.
BeanInfo class is used to selectively replace parts of the reflected information.
Thus, the properties could be defined, but the events obtained by reflection.
java.beans.Introspector class is used to obtain the combined view, including the
BeanInfo and reflected data.
It turns out that there are specific rules around capitalization in property names:
Thus when we extract a property or event name from the middle of an existing Java name, we
normally convert the first character to lower case. However to support the occasional use of all
upper-case names, we check if the first two characters of the name are both upper case and if
so leave it alone. So for example,
“FooBah” becomes “fooBah”
“Z” becomes “z”
“URL” becomes “URL”
When customizing a bean, the default approach is to take the set of properties and expose an
editor. This would operate as a key-value table, but where each property can nominate a
java.beans.PropertyEditor to provide a GUI for defining that property.
The classic example is a colour picker for a property of type
Again, any GUI is an AWT
And you can register an editor simply by naming it after the property being configured -
Foo class is edited by
FooEditor in the same package or a set of search packages.
The official tutorial is also instructive.
The simple view is that a bean just needs to be serializable, have a no-args constructor and
have getters/setters matching a naming convention. While this is true, the actual spec
has a lot more in it, including many rules that most developers do not follow, such as the use
This has been a whistlestop tour of the JavaBeans spec. What hits you between the eyes when you read it is a sense of how old it is. The world has very much moved on.
More significantly however, is that the "beans" that are so common in Java code, consisting of mutable classes with getters and setters are not what the authors of the spec had in mind. As such, we probably shouldn't really call them beans.
But perhaps it is time to write up a JavaBeans v2 spec to rethink the problem being solved in the absence of a properties language feature.